Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is a type of neuromodulation that specifically targets peripheral nerves. The procedure consists in implanting tiny wires under the skin. These wires deliver electrical impulses that interfere with pain signal transmission from the affected nerves to the brain, thereby reducing pain. PNS is used to treat a variety of painful conditions, including shoulder pain, knee pain, and foot/ankle pain. PNS is typically considered for patients who have failed prior treatments, such as medications or physical therapy. It is a minimally invasive procedure that can often be performed on an outpatient basis.